Sources

Policy Ideas Database

  1. Alcott, Blake (2013). Should degrowth embrace the Job Guarantee?
  2. Bak, C.; Bhattacharya, Amar; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Knopf, Brigitte (2017). Toward a Comprehensive Approach to Climate Policy, Sustainable Infrastructure and Finance, Centre for International Governance Innovation, Policy Brief No. 106
  3. Barnes, Peter (2008). Kapitalismus 3.0: ein Leitfaden zur Wiederaneignung der Gemeinschaftsgüter, VSA-Verl.
  4. Bekarooa, Girish; Sungkurb, Roopesh; Ramsamya, Priscilla; Okoloa, Alexander; Moedeena, Waseemah (2018). Enhancing awareness on green consumption of electronic devices: The application of Augmented Reality, 30, 279-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2018.10.016
  5. Bender, Harald; Bernholt, Norbert (2017). Unternehmen die nicht wachsen müssen. Die Unternehmensverfassung einer solidarischen Postwachstumsökonomie - Reformschritte und Umsetzungschancen im europäischen Kontext. In oekom (Ed.), Postwachstumspolitiken. Wege zur wachstumsunabhängigen Gesellschaft (253-266). oekom
  6. Bertoldi, P. (2017). Are current policies promoting a change in behaviour, conservation and sufficiency? An analysis of existing policies and recommendations for new and effective policies, 201–211
  7. Biesecker, Adelheid; Wichterich, Christa; Winterfeld, v. Uta (2012). Feministische Perspektiven zum Themenbereich Wachstum, Wohlstand, Lebensqualität. Enqueten-Kommission
  8. Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung, Referat 411, Projektgruppe Ökolandbau (2015). Förderung des Ökolandbaus durch EU, Bund und Länder
  9. Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland e.V (2017). Perspektive 2030: Suffizienz in der Praxis - Wie Kommunal- und Bundespolitik eine nachhaltige Entwicklung in den Bereichen Mobilität, Materialverbrauch, Energie, Landwirtschaft und Ernährung gestalten können
  10. Campiglio, Emanuele (2015). Beyond carbon pricing: The role of banking and monetary policy in financing the transition to a low-carbon economy, Ecological Economics, 121. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.03.020
  11. Campiglio, Emanuele; Dafermos, Yannis; Monnin, Pierre; Ryan-Collins, Josh; Schotten, Guido; Tanaka, Misa (2017). Finance and climate change: What role for central banks and financial regulators
  12. Cardoso, Sónia Goulart; Augusto, Fábio Rafael; Nunes, Nádia Carvalho; Graça, João (2018). Public support for vegetarian meals in public canteens: a preliminary study. In Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa (Ed.), Chancing socities: legacies and challenges. The diverse world's of sustainability.. Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa
  13. Coote, Anna; Franklin, Jane; Simms, Andrew (2010). 21 Hours. Why a Shorter Working Week Can Help Us All to Flourish in the 21st Century. New Economics Foundation
  14. Daly, Herman (2013). Top 10 Policies for a Steady-State Economy
  15. Deutsche Bundesbank (2019). The sustainable finance market: a stocktake. Deutsche Bundesbank. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=7&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjLlMW32Y3pAhVC6RoKHZDJDAIQFjAGegQIBBAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bundesbank.de%2Fresource%2Fblob%2F811962%2F78ce97c4696b5a252429cd1b557f2164%2FmL%2F2019-10-nachhaltige-finanzanlage-data.pdf&usg=AOvVaw0i_ag0GQOr4t49VxxzzDUG
  16. Deutscher Bundestag (2013). Schlussbericht der Enquete-Kommission Wachstum, Wohlstand, Lebensqualität.. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. https://www.bpb.de/shop/buecher/schriftenreihe/175745/schlussbericht-der-enquete-kommission
  17. Dietz, R.; O'Neill, D. (2013). Enough is enough
  18. Douthwait, Richard (2011). Degrowth and the supply of money in an energy-scarce world
  19. Felber, Christian (2012). Change Everything. Creating an Economy for the Common Good., Zed Books
  20. Friends of the Earth Europe (2018). Sufficiency. Moving beyond the gospel of eco-efficiency
  21. Fuhrhop, Daniel (2017). "Bauverbot" und Suffizienz im Stadtwandel. In oekom (Ed.), Postwachstumspolitiken. Wege zur wachstumsunabhängigen Gesellschaft (293-304). oekom
  22. Gebauer, Jana; Lange, Steffen; Posse, Dirk (2017). Wirtschaftspolitik für Postwachstum auf Unternehmensebene: Drei Ansätze zur Gestaltung, Postwachstumspolitiken. Wege zur wachstumsunabhängigen Gesellschaft (239–252)
  23. Greenwald, Bruce C.; Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2009). A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform. 10.7916/D8V98H8Q
  24. Hall, C. Michael (2011). Policy learning and policy failure in sustainable tourism governance: From first-and second-order to third-order change?, 19(4-5), 649–671
  25. Helfrich, Silke; Kuhlen, Rainer; Sachs, Wolfgang; Siefkes, Christian (2009). Gemeingüter - Wohlstand durch Teilen, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung
  26. Hester, R. E., Harrison, R. M. (2013). Waste as a resource
  27. Jackson, Tim (2013). Prosperity without growth. Globalisation, Economic Transition and the Environment, Routledge
  28. Krueger, Alan. B; Kahneman, David; Schkande, David; Schwarz, Norbert; Stone, Arthur, A (2009). National time accounting: The currency of life. In University of Chicago Pres (Ed.), Measuring the subjective well-being of nations: National accounts of time use and well-being (9-86). University of Chicago Pres
  29. Lange, Steffen; Santarius, Tilman (2018). Smarte grüne Welt? Digitalisierung zwischen Überwachung, Konsum und Nachhaltigkeit, oekom Verlag
  30. Leismann, K., Schmitt, M., Rohn, H., & Baedeker, C. (2012). Nutzen statt Besitzen: auf dem Weg zu einer ressourcenschonenden Konsumkultur
  31. Liebig, Steffen; Köhler, Christoph; Koepp, Robert (2017). Bedingungen und Optionen der Arbeitspolitik für die Postwachstumsgesellschaft. In oekom (Ed.), Postwachstumspolitiken. Wege zur wachstumsunabhängigen Gesellschaft (183-196). oekom
  32. Linz, Manfred (2015). Suffizienz als politische Praxis. Ein Katalog
  33. Ludewig, Damian (2017). Wie eine Ökologische Finanzreform die Postwachstumsökonomie fördern kann. In oekom (Ed.), Postwachstumspolitiken. Wege zur wachstumsunabhängigen Gesellschaft (225-238). oekom
  34. Macquarie, R (2018). A green bank of England. Central Banking for Low-Carbon Economy. Positiv Money. http://positivemoney.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/PositiveMoney_AGreenBankofEngland_Web.pdf
  35. Malizou, Angeliki (2015). Simplifying the EU Energy Label. Restoring the successful and well-understood closed A to G scheme.. ANEC, the European Association for the Co-ordination of Consumer Representation in Standardisation. http://www.anec.eu/attachments/ANEC_BEUC%20key%20priorities%20in%20the%20revision%20of%20the%20EU%20Energy%20Label.pdf
  36. Mattauch, Linus; Siegmeier, Jan; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Creutzig, Felix (2013). Financing public capital through land rent taxation: A macroeconomic henry george theorem, 22
  37. Mellor, Mary (2015). Debt or Democracy. Public Money for Sustainability and Social Justice, Pluto Press
  38. Mellor, Mary (2010). The future of money: From financial crisis to public resource, London: Pluto Press
  39. O'Neill, D., Dietz, R., Jones, N. (2010). Enough is Enough. Ideas for a sustainable economy in a world of finite resources. The Report of the Steady State Economy Conference
  40. Organisation for economic co-operation and development (2011). Environmental Taxation. A Guide for Policy Makers
  41. Paech, Niko (2016). Befreiung vom Überfluss: Auf dem Weg in die Postwachstumsökonomie, oekom Verlag
  42. Parrique, Timothée (2020). The political economy of degrowth, Université ClermontAuvergne; Stockholms universitet, 2
  43. Peukert, Helge (2017). Die Geld- und Finanzsphäre auf dem Weg in die Postwachstumsökonomie. In oekom (Ed.), Postwachstumspolitiken. Wege zur wachstumsunabhängigen Gesellschaft (211-224). oekom
  44. Raworth, Kate (2017). Doughnut economics: seven ways to think like a 21st century economist, Chelsea Green Publishing
  45. Richters, O.; Siemoneit, A. (06.03.2017). Fear of stagnation? A review on growth imperatives
  46. Schachtschneider, Ulrich (2014). Ökologisches Grundeinkommen – eine Beschleunigungsbremse
  47. Schoenmaker, Dirk; van Tilburg, Rens; Wijffels, Herman (2015). What Role for Financial Supervisors in Addressing Systemic Environmental Risks?, SSRN Journal. 10.2139/ssrn.2594671
  48. Seidl, I. & Zahrnt, A. (2010). Postwachstumsgesellschaft: Konzepte für die Zukunft, Metropolis-Verlag
  49. Standing, Guy (2017). Basic income: and how we can make it happen, Pelican
  50. Stolze, Matthias; Lampkin, Nicolas (2009). Policy for organic farming: Rationale and concepts, Food Policy, 34(3), 237-244. 10.1016/j.foodpol.2009.03.005
  51. Studer, Hans-Peter (2017). Gesundheit und Lebensqualität für eine Postwachstumsgesellschaft. In oekom (Ed.), Postwachstumspolitiken. Wege zur wachstumsunabhängigen Gesellschaft (281-292). oekom
  52. The Finnish Degrowth Network (2019). Policy Proposals for the Election 2019
  53. Umweltbundesamt (2019). Der Europäische Emissionshandel
  54. Umweltbundesamt (2018). Politik in Zeiten der planetaren Belastungsgrenzen: Die Perspektive einer vorsorgeorientierten Postwachstum-Position. Ein Diskussionsbeitrag aus dem Projekt „Ansätze zur Ressourcenschonung im Kontext von Postwachstumskonzepten“
  55. United Nations, European Comission, International Monetary Fund, Organisation fpr Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank (2003). Handbook of national accounting: integrated environmental and economic accounting 2003
  56. Volz, U. (2017). On the Role of Central Banks in Enhancing Green Finance. UN Environment Inquiry & CIGI
  57. Wahlen, Stefan; Heiskanen, Eva; Alto, Kriistina (2011). Endorsing Sustainable Food Consumption: Prospects from Public Catering, 35(1), 7-21. DOI: 10.1007/s10603-011-9183-4

Sustainable Prosperity – Made in Europe

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  2. D'Hombres, Béatrice; Schnepf, Sylke; Barjakovà, Martina; Mendonça, Francisco Teixeira (2018). Loneliness-an unequally shared burden in Europe. 10.13140/RG.2.2.21745.33128
  3. Atkinson, Anthony B; Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel (2011). Top Incomes in the Long Run of History, Journal of Economic Literature, 49(1), 3-71. 10.1257/jel.49.1.3
  4. Kapeller, Jakob; Gräbner, Claudius; Heimberger, Philipp (2019). Economic polarisation in Europe: Causes and policy options
  5. Stockhammer, Engelbert (2013). Why have wage shares fallen? An analysis of the determinants of functional income distribution. In Springer (Ed.), Wage-led growth (40-70). Springer
  6. European Commission (2018). Joint Employment Report 2018 As adopted by the EPSCO Council on 15th March 2018 European Commission. European Commission
  7. OECD (2019). OECD Employment Outlook 2019: The Future of Work, OECD
  8. Raworth, Kate (2017). Doughnut economics: seven ways to think like a 21st century economist, Chelsea Green Publishing
  9. European Environment Agency (2019). The European environment - state and outlook 2020. Knowledge for transition to a sustainable Europe.
  10. Steffen, W.; Richardson, K.; Rockström, J.; Cornell, S. E.; Fetzer, I.; Bennett, E. M.; Biggs, R.; Carpenter, S. R.; de Vries, W.; de Wit, C. A.; Folke, C.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Mace, G. M.; Persson, L. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Reyers, B.; Sorlin, S. (2015). Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet, Science, 347(6223), 1259855-1259855. 10.1126/science.1259855
  11. European Environment Agency (2019). Trends and projections in Europe 2019 - Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets
  12. (2018). The costs of climate inaction, Nature, 561(7724), 433-433
  13. Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will; Noone, Kevin; Persson, Åsa; Chapin III, F. Stuart; Lambin, Eric F.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Scheffer, Marten; Folke, Carl; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Nykvist, Björn; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Hughes, Terry; van der Leeuw, Sander; Rodhe, Henning; Sörlin, Sverker; Snyder, Peter K.; Costanza, Robert; Svedin, Uno; Falkenmark, Malin; Karlberg, Louise; Corell, Robert W.; Fabry, Victoria J.; Hansen, James; Walker, Brian; Liverman, Diana; Richardson, Katherine; Crutzen, Paul; Foley, Jonathan A. (2009). Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity, 14(2)
  14. European Environment Agency; Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (2020). Is Europe living within the limits of our planet? An assessment of Europe's environmental footprints in relation to planetary boundaries
  15. Jackson, Tim (2019). The Post-growth Challenge: Secular Stagnation, Inequality and the Limits to Growth, Ecological Economics, 156, 236-246. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.10.010
  16. Pichelmann, Karl (2015). When ‘Secular Stagnation’ meets Piketty’s capitalism in the 21st century. Growth and inequality trends in Europe reconsidered
  17. Eurostat (2020). General government gross debt - annual data
  18. European Commission (2019). Estimating International Tax Evasion by Individuals
  19. World Bank (2020). GDP growth (annual %) - European Union
  20. Martos, Carlos (2020). Von der Leyen: 'We now need to build a resilient, green, and digital Europe'
  21. European Council (2020). Joint statement of the Members of the European Council
  22. Mitchell, Andrew (2013). Risk and Resilience. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1787/5k3ttg4cxcbp-en
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  24. Richters, Oliver; Siemoneit, Andreas (2017). Fear of stagnation? A review on growth imperatives. Vereinigung für Ökologische Ökonomie. https://doi.org/10419/158012
  25. Jackson, Tim (2017). Prosperity without growth, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
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  30. Paech, Niko (2012). Liberation from excess: the road to a post-growth economy, Oekom
  31. Jackson, Tim (2009). Prosperity without Growth - The transition to a sustainable economy.
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  34. Cabeza, Luisa F.; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Ürge, Daniel; Palacios, Anabel; Barreneche, Camila (2018). Household appliances penetration and ownership trends in residential buildings, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 98, 1-8. 10.1016/j.rser.2018.09.006
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  40. Stratford, Beth (2020). The Threat of Rent Extraction in a Resource-constrained Future, 169, 106524. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106524
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  43. Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2012). The price of inequality: how today's divided society endangers our future, W.W. Norton & Co
  44. Stiglitz, Joseph E (2016). Inequality and economic growth. In Wiley-Blackwell, in association with The Political Quarterly (Ed.), Rethinking capitalism: economics and policy for sustainable and inclusive growth (134-155). Wiley-Blackwell, in association with The Political Quarterly
  45. Lavoie, Marc (2014). Post-Keynesian economics: new foundations, Elgar
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  48. European Commission (2019). Communication from the Commission – Annual Sustainable Growth Strategy 2020
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  51. Philipsen, Dirk (2015). The little big number: how GDP came to rule the world and what to do about it, Princeton University Press
  52. Kuznets, Simon (1934). National Income, 1929-1932, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc
  53. Cobb, Clifford; Halstead, Ted; Rowe, Jonathan (1995). If the GDP is Up, Why is America Down?, 95/10:6
  54. Schmelzer, Matthias (2015). "Expandiere oder stirb": Wachstumsziele, die OECD und die Steigerungslogik wirtschaftlicher Expansion, 41(3), 355-393
  55. United Nations (1953). A System of National Accounts and Supporting Tables. United Nations
  56. Solow, Robert M. (1956). A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(1), 65. 10.2307/1884513
  57. Fioramonti, Lorenzo (2017). Gross domestic problem: how the politics of GDP shaped society and the world. In Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group (Ed.), History of the future of economic growth: historical roots of current debates on sustainable degrowth (91-109). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
  58. OECD (2019). Beyond Growth: Towards a New Economic Approach
  59. O’Neill, Daniel W.; Fanning, Andrew L.; Lamb, William F.; Steinberger, Julia K. (2018). A good life for all within planetary boundaries, 1(2), 88-95. 10.1038/s41893-018-0021-4
  60. European Commission (2013). Commission Staff Working Document – Progress on 'GDP and beyond' actions
  61. Stiglitz, Joseph E.; Sen, Amartya; Fitoussi, Jean-Paul (2010). Mismeasuring our lives: Why GDP doesn't add up, The New Press
  62. van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. (2009). The GDP paradox, 30(2), 117-135. 10.1016/j.joep.2008.12.001
  63. Talberth, Dr John; Cobb, Clifford; Slattery, Noah (2007). The Genuine Progress Indicator 2006, 33
  64. Kubiszewski, Ida; Costanza, Robert; Franco, Carol; Lawn, Philip; Talberth, John; Jackson, Tim; Aylmer, Camille (2013). Beyond GDP: Measuring and achieving global genuine progress, Ecological Economics, 93, 57-68. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.04.019
  65. Daly, Herman E. (2005). Economics In A Full World, 293(3), 100-107. 10.1038/scientificamerican0905-100
  66. Easterlin, Richard A (1973). Does money buy happiness?, 3-10
  67. Fanning, Andrew L.; O'Neill, Daniel W. (2019). The Wellbeing–Consumption paradox: Happiness, health, income, and carbon emissions in growing versus non-growing economies, 212, 810-821. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.223
  68. Kahneman, D.; Deaton, A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being, 107(38), 16489-16493. 10.1073/pnas.1011492107
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  70. OECD (2020). How's Life? 2020: Measuring Well-being, OECD
  71. Wellbeing Economy Alliance (2020). Wellbeing Economy Alliance Brochure. https://wellbeingeconomy.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/WEAll-brochure_Jan20_S.pdf
  72. Scottish Government (2019). Scotland’s Wellbeing – Delivering the National Outcomes. https://nationalperformance.gov.scot/sites/default/files/documents/NPF_Scotland%27s_Wellbeing_May2019.pdf
  73. The New Zealand Treasury (2019). The Wellbeing Budget 2019. https://treasury.govt.nz/publications/wellbeing-budget/wellbeing-budget-2019-html
  74. Government of Iceland (2019). Indicators for Measuring Well-being. https://www.government.is/lisalib/getfile.aspx?itemid=fc981010-da09-11e9-944d-005056bc4d74

Evidence Collection

  1. Eurostat (2018). Development of waste treatment
  2. Fischedick, M.; Roy, J.; Acquaye, A. (2014). Industry. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change.
  3. Okamoto, Shunsuke (2013). Impacts of Growth of a Service Economy on CO2 Emissions: Japan’s Case
  4. Fix, Blair (2019). Dematerialization Through Services: Evaluating the Evidence, 4(2), 1-17. 10.1007/s41247-019-0054-y
  5. Heiskanen, Eva (2001). Dematerialization: the potential of ICT and sevices, Ministry of the Environment
  6. Giampietro, M. (2019). On the Circular Bioeconomy and Decoupling: Implications for Sustainable Growth, 162(Journal Article), 143-156. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.05.001
  7. Parrique, Timothée; Barth, Jonathan; Briens, François; Kerschner, Christian; Kraus-Polk, Alejo; Kuokkanen, Anna; Spangenberg, Joachim H. (2019). Decoupling debunked – Evidence and arguments against green growth as a sole strategy for sustainability. European Environmental Bureau
  8. Reuter, Markus A; van Schaik, Antoinette; Ballester, Miquel (2018). Limits of the Circular Economy: Fairphone Modular Design Pushing the Limits, 12
  9. Fischer-Kowalski, M.; Swilling, M.; von Weizsäcker, E.U.; Ren, Y.; Moriguchi, Y.; Crane, W.; Krausmann, Fridolin; Eisenmenger, N.; Giljum, S.; Hennicke, P.; Romero Lankao, P.; Siriban Manalang, A.; Sewerin, S. (2011). Decoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth. A Report of the Working Group on Decoupling to the International Resource Panel.
  10. Reck, Barbara K.; Graedel, T. E. (2012). Challenges in Metal Recycling
  11. Glatt, Moritz F.; Yi, Li; Mert, Gülsüm; Linke, Barbara S.; Aurich, Jan C. (2019). Technical Product-Service Systems: Analysis and reduction of the Cumulative Energy Demand, Journal of Cleaner Production, 206, 727-740. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.229
  12. Hickel, Jason; Kallis, Giorgos (2019). Is Green Growth Possible?, 0(0), 1-18
  13. Magee, Christopher L.; Devezas, Tessaleno C. (2017). A simple extension of dematerialization theory: Incorporation of technical progress and the rebound effect, 117(Journal Article), 196-205. 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.12.001
  14. International Energy Agency (2019). Renewable electricity generation by source (non-combustible), European Union - 28 1990-2017
  15. Frankfurt School-UNEP Centre (2020). Global Trends In Renewable Energy Investment 2020. https://www.fs-unep-centre.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/GTR_2020.pdf
  16. European Environment Agency (2019). Trends and projections in Europe 2019 - Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets
  17. International Energy Agency (2019). Crude oil imports vs. exports, European Union - 28 1990-2017
  18. Vikström, Hanna (2020). Risk or opportunity? The extractive industries’ response to critical metals in renewable energy technologies, 1980-2014, The Extractive Industries and Society, S2214790X18303320. 10.1016/j.exis.2020.01.004
  19. Liebe, Ulf; Dobers, Geesche M. (2019). Decomposing public support for energy policy: What drives acceptance of and intentions to protest against renewable energy expansion in Germany?, Energy Research & Social Science, 47, 247-260. 10.1016/j.erss.2018.09.004
  20. Porter, Gerald (2019). The World Is Spending the Least on Clean Energy in Six Years
  21. Ibrahim, Mustapha D.; Ferreira, Diogo Cunha; Daneshvar, Sahand; Marques, Rui Cunha (2019). Transnational resource generativity: Efficiency analysis and target setting of water, energy, land, and food nexus for OECD countries, Science of The Total Environment
  22. European Commission (2011). Energy Efficiency Plan 2011. COM(2011) 109 final. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/strategies/2050/docs/efficiency_plan_en.pdf
  23. Vehmas, Jarmo; Kaivo-oja, Jari; Luukkanen, Jyrki (2018). Energy efficiency as a driver of total primary energy supply in the EU-28 countries – incremental decomposition analysis, Heliyon, 4(10), e00878. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00878
  24. Ozcan, Burcu; Tzeremes, Panayiotis G.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G. (2020). Energy consumption, economic growth and environmental degradation in OECD countries, Economic Modelling, 84, 203-213. 10.1016/j.econmod.2019.04.010
  25. British Telecommunications (2016). The role of ICT in reducing carbon emissions in the EU. https://www.btplc.com/Purposefulbusiness/Ourapproach/Ourpolicies/ICT_Carbon_Reduction_EU.pdf
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