Evidence Collection

Eager to learn why focusing on economic growth, efficiency improvements and the circular economy alone is not sufficient to shape a thriving Europe? Here we present a comparison of key arguments to inform political discussions.


  1. Eurostat (2018). Development of waste treatment
  2. Fischedick, M.; Roy, J.; Acquaye, A. (2014). Industry. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change.
  3. Okamoto, Shunsuke (2013). Impacts of Growth of a Service Economy on CO2 Emissions: Japan’s Case
  4. Fix, Blair (2019). Dematerialization Through Services: Evaluating the Evidence, 4(2), 1-17. 10.1007/s41247-019-0054-y
  5. Heiskanen, Eva (2001). Dematerialization: the potential of ICT and sevices, Ministry of the Environment
  6. Giampietro, M. (2019). On the Circular Bioeconomy and Decoupling: Implications for Sustainable Growth, 162(Journal Article), 143-156. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.05.001
  7. Parrique, Timothée; Barth, Jonathan; Briens, François; Kerschner, Christian; Kraus-Polk, Alejo; Kuokkanen, Anna; Spangenberg, Joachim H. (2019). Decoupling debunked – Evidence and arguments against green growth as a sole strategy for sustainability. European Environmental Bureau
  8. Reuter, Markus A; van Schaik, Antoinette; Ballester, Miquel (2018). Limits of the Circular Economy: Fairphone Modular Design Pushing the Limits, 12
  9. Fischer-Kowalski, M.; Swilling, M.; von Weizsäcker, E.U.; Ren, Y.; Moriguchi, Y.; Crane, W.; Krausmann, Fridolin; Eisenmenger, N.; Giljum, S.; Hennicke, P.; Romero Lankao, P.; Siriban Manalang, A.; Sewerin, S. (2011). Decoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth. A Report of the Working Group on Decoupling to the International Resource Panel.
  10. Reck, Barbara K.; Graedel, T. E. (2012). Challenges in Metal Recycling
  11. Glatt, Moritz F.; Yi, Li; Mert, Gülsüm; Linke, Barbara S.; Aurich, Jan C. (2019). Technical Product-Service Systems: Analysis and reduction of the Cumulative Energy Demand, Journal of Cleaner Production, 206, 727-740. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.229
  12. Hickel, Jason; Kallis, Giorgos (2019). Is Green Growth Possible?, 0(0), 1-18
  13. Magee, Christopher L.; Devezas, Tessaleno C. (2017). A simple extension of dematerialization theory: Incorporation of technical progress and the rebound effect, 117(Journal Article), 196-205. 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.12.001
  14. International Energy Agency (2019). Renewable electricity generation by source (non-combustible), European Union - 28 1990-2017
  15. Frankfurt School-UNEP Centre (2020). Global Trends In Renewable Energy Investment 2020. https://www.fs-unep-centre.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/GTR_2020.pdf
  16. European Environment Agency (2019). Trends and projections in Europe 2019 - Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets
  17. International Energy Agency (2019). Crude oil imports vs. exports, European Union - 28 1990-2017
  18. Vikström, Hanna (2020). Risk or opportunity? The extractive industries’ response to critical metals in renewable energy technologies, 1980-2014, The Extractive Industries and Society, S2214790X18303320. 10.1016/j.exis.2020.01.004
  19. Liebe, Ulf; Dobers, Geesche M. (2019). Decomposing public support for energy policy: What drives acceptance of and intentions to protest against renewable energy expansion in Germany?, Energy Research & Social Science, 47, 247-260. 10.1016/j.erss.2018.09.004
  20. Porter, Gerald (2019). The World Is Spending the Least on Clean Energy in Six Years
  21. Ibrahim, Mustapha D.; Ferreira, Diogo Cunha; Daneshvar, Sahand; Marques, Rui Cunha (2019). Transnational resource generativity: Efficiency analysis and target setting of water, energy, land, and food nexus for OECD countries, Science of The Total Environment
  22. European Commission (2011). Energy Efficiency Plan 2011. COM(2011) 109 final. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/strategies/2050/docs/efficiency_plan_en.pdf
  23. Vehmas, Jarmo; Kaivo-oja, Jari; Luukkanen, Jyrki (2018). Energy efficiency as a driver of total primary energy supply in the EU-28 countries – incremental decomposition analysis, Heliyon, 4(10), e00878. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00878
  24. Ozcan, Burcu; Tzeremes, Panayiotis G.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G. (2020). Energy consumption, economic growth and environmental degradation in OECD countries, Economic Modelling, 84, 203-213. 10.1016/j.econmod.2019.04.010
  25. British Telecommunications (2016). The role of ICT in reducing carbon emissions in the EU. https://www.btplc.com/Purposefulbusiness/Ourapproach/Ourpolicies/ICT_Carbon_Reduction_EU.pdf
  26. Ghisetti, Claudia; Quatraro, Francesco (2017). Green Technologies and Environmental Productivity: A Cross-sectoral Analysis of Direct and Indirect Effects in Italian Regions, 132(Journal Article), 1-13. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.10.003
  27. Töbelmann, Daniel; Wendler, Tobias (2020). The impact of environmental innovation on carbon dioxide emissions, Journal of Cleaner Production, 244, 118787. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118787
  28. Wurlod, JD; Noailly, J. (2018). The impact of green innovation on energy intensity: An empirical analysis for 14 industrial sectors in OECD countries, 71(Journal Article), 47-61. 10.1016/j.eneco.2017.12.012
  29. Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Yu-Lu; Ma, Chao-Qun; Shen, Bo (2017). Can environmental innovation facilitate carbon emissions reduction? Evidence from China, Energy Policy, 100, 18-28. 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.10.005
  30. Li, Mingquan; Wang, Qi (2017). Will technology advances alleviate climate change? Dual effects of technology change on aggregate carbon dioxide emissions, 41(Journal Article), 61-68. 10.1016/j.esd.2017.08.004
  31. Herring, Horace (2006). Energy efficiency—a critical view, Energy, 31(1), 10-20
  32. Paoli, Leonardo; Cullen, Jonathan (2020). Technical limits for energy conversion efficiency, Energy, 192, 116228. 10.1016/j.energy.2019.116228
  33. A. Greening, Lorna; Greene, David L.; Difiglio, Carmen (2000). Energy efficiency and consumption — the rebound effect — a survey, 28(6), 389-401. 10.1016/S0301-4215(00)00021-5
  34. Sorrell, Steve; Speirs, Jamie; Bentley, Roger; Brandt, Adam; Miller, Richard (2010). Global oil depletion: A review of the evidence, 38(9), 5290-5295. 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.04.046
  35. Dorner, Zack (2019). A behavioral rebound effect, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 98, 102257. 10.1016/j.jeem.2019.102257
  36. Munyon, Vinola Vincent; Bowen, William M.; Holcombe, John (2018). Vehicle fuel economy and vehicle miles traveled: An empirical investigation of Jevon’s Paradox, Energy Research & Social Science, 38, 19-27. 10.1016/j.erss.2018.01.007
  37. Freudenreich, Birte; Schaltegger, Stefan (2020). Developing sufficiency-oriented offerings for clothing users: Business approaches to support consumption reduction, Journal of Cleaner Production, 247, 119589. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119589
  38. Saleem, Ali (2014). Social and Environmental Impact of the Rare Earth Industries, 3(1), 123-134. 10.3390/resources3010123
  39. Carrara, S.; Alves Dias, P.; Plazzotta, B.; Pavel, C. (2020). Raw materials demand for wind and solar PV technologies in the transition towards a decarbonised energy system. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/raw-materials-demand-wind-and-solar-pv-technologies-transition-towards-decarbonised-energy-system
  40. Collins, Terry; Kuehr, Ruediger; Kroehling, Adreas; de Roos, Jeroen (2012). E-waste: Annual Gold, Silver “Deposits” in New High-Tech Goods Worth $21 Billion+; Less Than 15% Recovered. United Nations University, Global e-Sustainability Iniatiave, NVMP, UNIDO, Solving the e-waste problem. https://i.unu.edu/media/unu.edu/news/25814/StEP-news-release_6July2012.pdf
  41. Weina, Ding; Gilli, Marianna; Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Nicolli, Francesco (2016). Green inventions and greenhouse gas emission dynamics: a close examination of provincial Italian data, Environ Econ Policy Stud, 18(2), 247-263. 10.1007/s10018-015-0126-1
  42. Cheng, Cheng; Ren, Xiaohang; Wang, Zhen (2019). The impact of renewable energy and innovation on carbon emission: An empirical analysis for OECD countries, Energy Procedia, 158, 3506-3512. 10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.919
  43. Gilli, Marianna; Mancinelli, Susanna; Mazzanti, Massimiliano (2014). Innovation complementarity and environmental productivity effects: Reality or delusion? Evidence from the EU, Ecological Economics, 103, 56-67. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.04.004
  44. Hepburn, Cameron; Bowen, Alex (2013). Prosperity with growth: Economic growth, climate change and environmental limits. In Edward Elgar Publishing (Ed.), Handbook on Energy and Climate Change. Edward Elgar Publishing
  45. European Commission (2018). EU Eco-Innovation Index 2018
  46. Shift Project (2019). Lean ICT- Towards Digital Sobriety